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INTRODUCTION OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IN ENGLISH

INTRODUCTION

there are two main classes of chemical compounds:

                                                      (1)  Inorganic compounds
                                                      (2)  Orgnaic compounds
  • in the early day of chemistry,all substences knowe were classicfaid on the basic of their origin so the compounds having mineral origan were knowe as" Inorganic Compounds" (e.g) table salt, marble salt, carbon dioxide etc.
  • the compounds which have vegatable or animals origin were knowe as "Organic Compounds".(e.g)acetic acis, alcohol, acetone, gluocse, sucrose, etc
 VITAL FORCE THEORY

at one time, it was believes that organic compound be only produced by living matter. for living matter a special force called " vital force" was neccessary.


this concept ( vital force theory ) was unchallenged since 1828 and no effort was made to produce organic compound in lab. in the latter part of 1828, the german shemist " fridrich whohler" perpared urea in the lab by heating ammonium cyanate, derived from inorganic substances. this synthetically made urea in the lab was proved  to be indentical in all respect  with urea (isolated from urine)

 KOCN+ NH4Cl -------------------------------->KCL + NH4OCN

 (Ammonium Chloride. MOL WT 53.491 NH4CL)


                                         o
                                                                                 !!
             NH4OCN ------------------------> NH2---C---NH2                        
   (Ammonium Cyanate mol.wt 60.05526 NH4OCN) 

 

this synthesis of an organic compound from totally inorganic compound material did not immediately breakdown the old concept. in the folowing year synthesis of msny organic compound were archived. thus by 1850, the vital force theory was finally and decisively disproved. it had become evident, howere, that most of the compounds formed by living cells contained "CARBON" and the concept regarding organic compound was shifted from" ORIGN  to COMPOSTION  and organic compounds are considered as those containing "CARBON".

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