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All organic compounds aat one time came from plants or animals.many of our  most importants substance  are still derived from these sources directly or indirectly.


     Many organic compounds are obtained directly from plant and animals sources by suitable. method of isllation.a few familiar EXAMPLE are carbohydrates (cellulose, sugar, and starches.) proteins (silk, wool, casein, and food proteins) fats and oils(cottonsed soybean oils lard, butter) alkaloids (quinine ,morphine, strychnine) hormones, vitamins,perfumes, flavours and resins.


             Natural gas and petroleum are now the major sourcse of organic compounds .they are used as fuels  and also, throughsynthetic organic reaction.for the production of hundreds of useful organic substances such as solvents,synthetic rubber,explosive,and plastic.

3)  COAL

           Coal is another major sources of organic compounds.it yield coke and coal-tar on pyrolysis or destructive distillation.more then 200                    organic compounds have been directly isolated from coal-tar. these coal-tar products from the starting materialsfor the manufacture of thousands of useful aromatic compounds,including pefumes,drugs,dyes, photographic developers,and other.


      Simple organic compunds derived from petroleum or coal have been converted into thousands of useful materials by synthetic mthod.many EXAMPLE might be cited of syntgetic organic compounds replacing those obtained from natural sources,such as dyes, rubber, fibres, plastic ,drugs, vitamins.in many  cases the synthetic materials are superior to the natural compounds replaced.for example ,synthetic dyes are superior to those of natural origin.in other cases the synthetic materials are entirely unknown in nature and fill the requirements not satisfied are entirely other sources.EXAMPLE.are ether .glycol, aspirin, and sulpher drugs.synthetic organicchemistry touches almost every phase of life.



The compounds, that catch fire at once,are called or know as'' FLAMMABLE ''


The compounds,that burn, are called ''COMBUSTIBLE''


The phenomenon in which compounds have same molecular formula but different from each other in physical or chemical properties.


The reaction in which small molecular are combined together to form a big molecule is called ''''POLYMERISATION'''.


The amounte of one substance (solute) that could dissolve in another substance  (solvent) to from a saturated
solution under condition of temerature and pressure.

6)    SOLUTE

A substance that is dissolved in a solvent to from a solution.


A liquid capable of dissloved other materials(solid , liquid , gas) to from of solution,


A substance that CONDUCTER electricity, haet, sound etc through it.

Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Compounds:

Organic and inorganic posses different compostion. nature, structure, and properties.the different between
 organic and inorganic compounds are illustrated from the following statement.


1..)carbon is basic element of an organic compounds..

e.g .acetic acid (CH3COOH). CH4 (Methane).CCL4 (Carbon tetrachloride.). RNH2.

2..) organic compounds mostly consist of carbon, hydrogen, halogen, and phosphorus.

3..)organic compounds are mostly covalent in nature.

4..)organic compounds  have low solubility in water.

5..)organic compounds sharply soluble in an organic solvent.

6..)organic compounds have low melting and boiling points.

7..) orgain compounds are flammable and combustibe.

8..)organic compounds have a property of isomerism and polymerism.

9..)some organic compounds volatil..e g  Banzane Ether etc.

10..)the reation of oeganic compounds are usually slow.

11.) they  are usually non conductor of electicity.

12.) organic compounds are studied as hydrocarbon and derivative of hydrocarbons. Example : ROH, RX,RNH2,RCHO etc


1..) carbon is not basic  elements of inorganic compounds.

e.g .NACL(Sodium chloride)..CO2 (Carbon dioxide)..H20 (water)  HCL (Hydrochloric acid)....H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid)

2..) inorganic compounds consist of all the elements known.

3..)inorganic compounds are mostly inonic in nature.

4..) inorganic compounds are heighly soluble in water.

5..) inorganic compounds are not soluble in organic compounds or solvents.

6..)  inorganic compoundshave heigh melting and boiling points.

7..)  inorganic compounds are not flammable and combustible.

8..)  inorganic compounds have no property of isoerism and polymerism.

9..) inorganic compounds are non-volatile.

10.) the reation of inorganic compounds are fast.

11.) they are mostly conucter of electricity.

12.) inorganic compounds are studied as a acid, base and salt.Example  ...H2SO4....NAOH.....NA2CO3...etc

Why Organic Chemistry is a Seprarate Branch of Chemistry ?

Organic chemistry obey the same fundamental laws of chemistry that Hold for  inorganic
compounds. however, they are studied as a separate discipline becaues of the following reasons.

{1}  Large number of compounds.

There are approximately 100,000 known inorganic compounds and this number is  not repidly increasing.
on the other hand, ther are over 5 million known organic compounds and several thousand new compunds
are synthesised each year. if the study of 5 million organic compounds was included with that of carbon
under inorganic chemisttry, it would throw the subject out of balance.

{2} Unique chemical and physical prperties.

There are maked differnace between the compostion, structure, and properties of organic  and inorganic
compoounds which make their study as a separate branch more practical and useful.

{3} Unique character of  carbon.

Carbon has the ability to bond successively to other carbon atoms to from chain of varying lengths and shapes.
this property of carbon is called " catenation" and is responsible for the variety and large number of organic

Importantances of Organic Chemistry.

No field of sciences is so closly related with our daily activities as" ORGAINIC CHEMISTRY" .the food we eat, the changes with this food undergoes inour body are organic chemical reation, the clothes we wear, the soap and strach used to lainder them, the leather in our shoes, the furniture used  in our houses, the paint and varnish , the fuel and lubricants are all organic  in nature. the importances of organic compounds in Everyday Life is Shown by the Following List..

  1. Food                                     : Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates,
  2. Clothing                                :Cotton, Silk, Wool, Nylon, Rayon, Dacron,
  3. Shelter                                  :Wood, paints, varinshes,
  4. Power and transportantion       : Natural Gas, Petroleum Products, Coal,
  5. Medicienes and drugs             : Penicillin G, Streptomycin, LSD,
  6. Insecticides                            :DDT
  7. Herbicides                               :Treflan, 2, 4-D
  8. Hormones and steroids
  9. Vitamins and enzymes
  10. Pigments and dyes
  11. Paper and inks
  12. Photographoc film and developers
  13. Perfumes and flavours
  14. PPlastics,rubber and flavours
  15. Plropellants and explosives
  16. Soaps and detergents
  17. Refrigerants

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